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Introduction to Croatian scenery issue


Stamps depicting various Croatian towns and scenery, were the first definitive issues in Independent State of Croatia. The stamps were designed by Oto Antonini and Hinko Baranek, their initials can be seen on some values.

The issue was printed in photogravure by Tipografija d.d. and Hrvatska državna tiskara. The stamps were printed using many different plates and in different circulations from September 1st 1941 to April 7th 1943. The exact dynamic of releases is impossible to determine, as a result, these stamps are in stamp catalogs classified as one set.

Characteristics


Press sheet
A press sheet consisted of 4 sheets of stamps, each having 100 stamps. A press sheet was then cut in order to produce 4 postal sheets of 100 (10 x 10) stamps each.

For most of the values a press element consisted of 2 sheets of stamps which were imprinted twice on the same press sheet to produce 4 impressions. For some values the press element consisted of 4 sheets and in this case all 400 stamps were printed at once on a press sheet. Sheets of stamps on a press sheet were marked with Roman numerals.

Paper
Stamps were printed on four main types of paper:

  1. intaglio,
  2. porous,
  3. thin and
  4. offset.

There are also differences within types of papers especially in thickness, smoothness, transparency, structure and color.

According to Novak (cited in Ercegović, 1995: 206) the first runs were printed on intaglio paper, second runs on porous and thin papers and the third runs on offset paper.

Colors
As the stamps were printed in larger time intervals, two presses and on different papers there exist many nuances in colors and also minor color spills, mainly around areas with higher concentration of color.

Gum
In first runs printed in Tipografija d.d. on intaglio paper, the gum was applied after the stamps were printed. Two different UV reflections of the gum were observed. Stamps with shiny and half-shiny gum are also known.

All values on all papers exist imperforate, partially perforated, multiple perforated, blind perforated and with shifted perforation. All values on all papers exist imperforate, partially perforated, multiple perforated, blind perforated and with shifted perforation.

Stamps printed on porous paper were also gummed after the printing. Gums in grayish and yellowish color are known, the latter in two color tones. In case of issues printed on thin paper white and yellowish gum exist. The paper was gummed before printing.

Issues printed on offset and intaglio paper exhibit differences in thickness of coating, especially in case of the latter also partially gummed examples were noted.

Perforation
In specialized literature it is assumed that stamps were perforated using 6 different blades which resulted in 6 perforations ranging from 10 ¾ to 11 ½ (Ercegović, 1995: 215-216).

Coincidental varieties


Thick vertical colored line Thin vertical colored line
Offsets are known on all values and all papers
Paper folds and paper creases are known on all values, especially on those which were printed on thin paper.

Thick and thin lines
On most of the values a (presumed) coincidental variety occurs in form of thin or thick vertical lines, running over the whole stamp. As this occurrence is not discussed in available literature the reliable judgment can’t be given at this point. The author of this text noted that thin lines are most probably coincidental in nature as on the same position in a sheet (printed on the same paper) don’t appear regularly, also a position of a line might differ. Thin and thick lines were noted on most issues.

Other coincidental varieties
The following varieties were noted on all values and all papers:

Imperforate stamps originate from printer’s waste and were not postally used.

Printer’s waste
Printing of value papers (stamps included) is under strict control. Unsuccessful copies are documented and destroyed and a documentation on the whole process exists. In case of all editions of Independent State of Croatia there was insufficient control over destruction of printer’s waste. As a consequence a large number of such materials exist on the market. It is known that at the time hundreds of items from printer’s waste were sold to collectors and dealers. For some stamps it is impossible to determine whether they derive from printer’s waste or not.

Common types


Head to tail layout was used in values 0.25 kn, 0.25 kn on 2 kn (provisional issue), 0.50 kn, 1 kn, 1.50 kn, 2 kn, 4 kn, 5 kn (black), 6 kn, 7 kn, 8 kn, 10 kn, 20 kn, 30 kn and 50 kn

Many varieties in this issues are deliberately created. Not only deliberately inserted marks (such as letter U on 3 kuna stamp or letter H on 100 kuna stamp) but also other varieties. As it is impossible to determine which were deliberately produced all the types are described in tables together with constant varieties.

The following values were printed in head-to-tail layout: 0.25 kn, 0.25 kn on 2 kn (provisional issue), 0.50 kn, 1 kn, 1.50 kn, 2 kn, 4 kn, 5 kn (black), 6 kn, 7 kn, 8 kn, 10 kn, 20 kn, 30 kn and 50 kn.

Constant varieties and types


In these issues an abundance of constant varieties exsist, a lot of them were not recorded in philatelic literature. Due to a great number the varieties can’t be displayed on one page and separate sections for each type were created.

The exact position of a variety in a sheet is indicated in tables, classified according to paper types and plate numbers.

Please select the type below to display constant varieties:

0.25 kn, Ozalj 0.25 kn on 2 kune, Zagreb 0.50 kn, Jajce 0.75 kn, Varaždin 1 kn, Velebit 1.50 kn, Zelenjak
2 kn, Zagreb 3 kn, Osijek 3.50 kn, Trakoščan 4 kn, Drina 5 kn, Konjic 5 kn, Zemun
6 kn, Dubrovnik 7 kn, Slavonija 8 kn, Sarajevo 10 kn, Plitvice 12 kn, Klis 12.50 kn, Veliki Tabor
20 kn, Hvar 30 kn, Srijem 50 kn, Senj 100 kn, Banja Luka

Complete sheets of stamps


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Intaglio paper Porous paper Thin paper Offset paper
I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV
0.25 kuna, brick-red Link Missing Link Link Link Link
0.25 kuna on 2 kuna, carmine Missing Missing Missing Missing
0.50 kuna, slate blue Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Link Missing Missing Missing Link Missing Missing Missing
0.75 kuna, olive green Link Link Missing Link Missing Missing
1 kuna, prussian green Missing Link Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Link Missing Missing Link T1
Link T2
Missing
1.50 kuna, deep green Missing Missing Missing Link Missing Missing Link Link
2 kuna, carmine Missing Missing Missing Missing Link Link Link Missing Missing Missing Missing Link
3 kune, brown red Link Missing Link Link Missing Missing
3.50 kuna, brown carmine Link Missing Missing Link Missing Link Missing Missing
4 kuna, ultramarine Missing Link Missing Link
5 kuna, black Missing Missing
5 kuna, blue Missing Missing Missing Missing Missing Link (?)
6 kuna, olive brown Link (?) Missing Missing Missing
7 kuna, orange red Missing Missing Link Missing
8 kuna, brown Missing Missing Link Missing
10 kuna, dark lilac Missing Missing Link Missing Missing Link
12 kuna, brownish olive green Missing Missing
12.50 kuna, violet black Link Missing Missing Missing
20 kuna, brown Missing Missing Missing Link
30 kuna, black brown Missing Missing Missing Link
50 kuna, slate green Missing Missing Missing Missing
100 kuna, lilac Missing Missing Link Link


Bibliography


  1. Ercegović, Velimir (1995): HRVATSKA FILATELIJA – Od predfilatelije do maraka Republike Hrvatske, Agencija za komercijalnu djelatnost, Zagreb ISBN-13: 978-9539641915
  2. Katalog poštanskih maraka jugoslovenskih zemalja (1991), Jugomarka (Belgrade). YU ISSN 0351-4447